At 28 days, there was no significant difference in mortality when comparing patients who were treated with pentoxifylline with those who were not (OR ; 95%CI -; p = ). There was also no difference in 28-day mortality when comparing patients treated with prednisolone and those who were not (OR ; 95%CI -; p = ). Moreover, neither treatment impacted mortality or the need for liver transplantation at 90 days or 1 year. The risk of infection was significantly higher in patients treated with prednisolone (p = ).
Although animal experiments show that diabetes mellitus increases susceptibility to toxic liver injury caused by certain compounds (., APAP), there is no evidence to show that diabetes mellitus increases the risk of all-cause DILI in humans. Liver injury due to selected compounds such as methotrexate and anti-tuberculosis medicines may be increased in individuals with diabetes. A preliminary report from the United States Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) showed that underlying diabetes mellitus was independently associated with the severity of DILI (odds ratio=; 95% CI=–) (16).