Atp coupling of catabolic and anabolic reactions

During the initial phases of glycolysis and the TCA cycle , cofactors such as NAD+ donate and accept electrons [12] that aid in the electron transport chain 's ability to produce a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. [13] The ATP synthase complex exists within the mitochondrial membrane (F 0 portion) and protrudes into the matrix (F 1 portion). The energy derived as a result of the chemical gradient is then used to synthesize ATP by coupling the reaction of inorganic phosphate to ADP in the active site of the ATP synthase enzyme; the equation for this can be written as ADP + P i → ATP.

All energy yielding process are ultimately dependent upon enzymatically catalyzed redox reactions. The most important one for energy metabolism involve biological membranes with bound electron transport processes like photosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation. Biological oxidation is the primary provider of energy for cellular anabolism, the reductive synthesis of metabolites, by furnishing mobile hydrogens, and phosporylating energy by combining hydrogens with oxygen to form water coupling this process to the production of ATP in the form of oxidative phosphorylation. Central to the oxidation-reduction processes are the vitamin B group containing coenzymes nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate ( NADP , (C00006; oxidized form); NAD (C00003; oxidized form; not phosphorylated at the adenosine ribosyl C2 position).  Being part of the appropriate enzymes the oxidized nicotinamide ring of NAD + or NADP + extracts a hydride (H: - ) from a wide variety of simple metabolites in a process known as dehydrogenation . The enzymes catalyzing the reduction of nicotinamide containing coenzymes are called dehydrogenases . In a typical reaction two hydrogen atoms (including their electrons) are removed from the substrate to produce the oxidized form of the donor. The fate of the two hydrogens differs: one hydrogen with two electrons (H: - ), a hydride ion, is transferred to the nicotinamide ring to produce reduced NADH or NADPH while the other hydrogen is released into solution as a free proton (H + ). The generic form of a redox reaction mechanism catalyzed by enzymes with NAD as cofactor is shown.

Table 1. Oxidative pathways of glycolysis employed by various bacteria. Bacterium Embden-Meyerhof pathway Phosphoketolase (heterolactic) pathway Entner Doudoroff pathway Acetobacter aceti - + - Agrobacterium tumefaciens - - + Azotobacter vinelandii - - + Bacillus subtilis major minor - Escherichia coli + - - Lactobacillus acidophilus + - - Leuconostoc mesenteroides - + - Pseudomonas aeruginosa - - + Vibrio cholerae minor - major Zymomonas mobilis - - +

The regulated uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation is a biologically useful means of generating heat. The uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation is a means of generating heat to maintain body temperature in hibernating animals, in some newborn animals (including human beings), and in mammals adapted to cold. Brown adipose tissue, which is very rich in mitochondria (often referred to as brown fat mitochondria), is specialized for this process of non shivering thermogenesis. The inner mitochondrial membrane of these mitochondria contains a large amount of uncoupling protein (UCP), here UCP-1, or Thermogenin, a dimer of 33-kd subunits that resembles ATP-ADP translocase. UCP-1 forms a pathway for the flow of protons from the cytosol to the matrix. In essence, UCP-1 generates heat by short-circuiting the mitochondrial proton battery. This UCP-1 channel is activated by fatty acids (as in the given case) – Figure-2.

Atp coupling of catabolic and anabolic reactions

atp coupling of catabolic and anabolic reactions

The regulated uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation is a biologically useful means of generating heat. The uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation is a means of generating heat to maintain body temperature in hibernating animals, in some newborn animals (including human beings), and in mammals adapted to cold. Brown adipose tissue, which is very rich in mitochondria (often referred to as brown fat mitochondria), is specialized for this process of non shivering thermogenesis. The inner mitochondrial membrane of these mitochondria contains a large amount of uncoupling protein (UCP), here UCP-1, or Thermogenin, a dimer of 33-kd subunits that resembles ATP-ADP translocase. UCP-1 forms a pathway for the flow of protons from the cytosol to the matrix. In essence, UCP-1 generates heat by short-circuiting the mitochondrial proton battery. This UCP-1 channel is activated by fatty acids (as in the given case) – Figure-2.

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